# Introduction to Arraylists¶

Written by PChan on 2017-09-02

## Brief Overview¶

After learning about arrays, you might be annoyed with their limitation and the need to resize them after they are filled. Like arrays, ArrayLists can only hold one type of items with the further restriction of limiting the items to objects. However, they are dynamic in length [1].

 [1] Note: ArrayLists is essentially a wrapper class for arrays that resize the underlying array for you when necessary.

## Declaring ArrayLists¶

Unlike arrays, you need to import ArrayList before you can use it:

// Insert this at the top of the file
import java.utils.ArrayList;


The syntax for declaring an ArrayList is as follows: ArrayList<type> name = new ArrayList<type>();. Here type refers to an Object type. For example:

// Declare an ArrayList of Integers
ArrayList<Integer> a = new ArrayList<Integer>();


ArrayLists may only hold objects and so the following declaration is invalid:

// Attempt to declare an ArrayList of ints
ArrayList<int> a = new ArrayList<int>();


## Printing ArrayLists¶

Since ArrayLists are objects, you can see their contents by invoking their toString methods. Use the following syntax:

System.out.println(object)


There are three ways to add a new element: insert it at the beginning, insert it in the middle, or insert it at the end. This is accomplished via the add() method which takes two form:

// Appending to the end

// Insert at an index


Exercise: Take these two methods for a test drive. Here are a few guidelines:

1. How would you insert at the beginning? The middle? The end?
2. What happens when you insert at a non-existing index?
3. What if you specify a negative index?

## Accessing Elements¶

ArrayLists use the get() method instead of the bracket notation. The syntax is: arraylist_name.get(index). Here are a few examples:

ArrayList<String> a = new ArrayList<String>();
a.get(0);         // "hello"
a.get(1);         // "bye"


## Modifying ArrayLists¶

There are two ways of modifying ArrayLists: changing an element and removing an element. We will discuss how to change an element first.

To change an element, you would simply invoke the set() method. Here is the syntax along with a few examples:

// Syntax
arraylist_name.set(int index, E element)

// Examples
list.set(0, "Bye")    // Change the first element of list to "Bye"
list.set(1, "Hello")  // Change the second element of the list to "Hello"


To remove an element, you would need to invoke one of the remove() methods. Here are the syntax for both methods along with a few examples:

// Syntax
arraylist_name.remove(int index)     // Remove the element at specified index
arraylist_name.remove(Object o)      // Remove the first occurence of that element

// Examples
list.remove(0)                       // Remove the first element in list
list.remove("hello")                 // Remove the first occurence of "hello" in list


## Looping Over ArrayLists¶

Many operations you do with ArrayLists would involve looping over them. Whether you are populating an ArrayList or modifying an ArrayList, knowing how to loop over them can make it easier and the impossible possible.

One important bit of information is the length of the ArrayList which can be accessed with <arraylist_name>.size(). For example:

ArrayList<String> list = new ArrayList<String>();
System.out.println("The size is " + list.size())  // The size is 0

System.out.println("The size is " + list.size())  // The size is 3


Exercise: Now that we know how to retrieve the size of an ArrayList, how would you use that information to loop over the ArrayList?

Warning

Arrays has array_name.length while ArrayLists utilizes arraylist_name.size(). This is one of the most common errors.

## Autoboxing and Unboxing¶

While ArrayLists can only store objects, Java is smart enough to convert primitives into their corresponding wrapper classes and vice versa under certain circumstances. These mechanisms are known as auto-boxing and unboxing respectively.

Auto-boxing is the concept of “boxing” the primitive into the wrapper class when the Java compiler encounters a primitive, but expects an instance of the wrapper class. This automatic conversion explains why the following code compiles without errors:

ArrayList<Integer> a = new ArrayList<Integer>();
for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++){
}


Tip: Try it out for yourself and see if it compiles.

Here we are able to add ints to an ArrayList of Integers. During runtime, the Java compiler creates an Integer object from i and adds that to a.

Similarly when the Java compiler encounters an instance of the wrapper class but expects a primitive, it would convert the instance of the wrapper class to a primitve. This conversion is known as unboxing and explains why the following code also compiles without errors:

// Assume we have an ArrayList, list, filled with Integers
int sum = 0
for(Integer i: list){
sum += i;
}


Tip: Try it out for yourself and see if it compiles.

Here we are able to add Integers as if they are ints because during runtime, the Java compiler generates an int from i by invoking the intValue() method.

## ArrayLists as Parameters¶

Now that you know how to modify ArrayLists, let us look at the effects of modifying an ArrayList when you pass it through a function. This would be left as an exercise for you, but here are some guidelines:

1. Write a function that takes an ArrayList as a parameter. Inside the function, modify the ArrayList but do not return it.
2. Inside the main method, initialize an ArrayList. Print the ArrayList and then call the function giving it the ArrayList you just initalized as the argument.
3. Try printing out the ArrayList afterward. Did anything change?

Reflection: Compare your findings with what happens if you passed a primitive (boolean, int, etc) through a function. What does this tells you about ArrayList? What benefits does this offer? Cons?

## Searching for an Element¶

Sometimes you might want to check to see if an element exists in the ArrayList or maybe you want to find the position of an element.

One way to do this is via a linear search. A linear search involves looping through every element of the ArrayList and checking to see if the element at each position matches what you are looking for. Once found, the position or the element at that position can be returned.

Exercise: Try implementing a linear search for the ArrayList that would return the position of the element that you are trying to find.

While ArrayLists also have a method for finding the index of an element, it would deepen your learning experience if you try the exercise above first. Here is the syntax and a few examples of the method:

// Syntax
arraylist_name.indexOf(Object o)

// Examples
ArrayList<Integer> list = new ArrayList<Integer>();

list.indexOf(3);        // 0
list.indexOf(1);        // 2
list.indexOf(4);        // -1 (searching for elements not in the ArrayLists would result in -1)


Warning

Remember that in Computer Science, we start counting at 0. Hence the first element is at index 0.

## ArrayLists vs Arrays¶

ArrayLists and arrays are both containers for one data type. However, there are many differences between them that you should be aware of when choosing which data structure to use:

ArrayLists Arrays
Data Type may only store Objects may store Objects or primitives
Length are dynamic in length have fixed length
Size have the size() method have the length property
Accessing Elements have the get() method have the bracket notation: []

## Essential Methods Reference¶

boolean add(E e)
Appends element e to the end of the list. Returns true if successful.
void add(int index, E e)
Inserts element e at specified index of the list.
void clear()
Removes all elements from the list.
boolean contains(Object o)
Returns true if o is the list. Example: l.contains("string");
E get(int index)
Gets element at the specified index of the list.
int indexOf(Object o)
Gets the first instance of o in the list.
int lastIndexOf(Object o)
Gets the last instance of o in the list.
E remove(int index)
Removes and returns the element at the specified index of the list.
boolean remove(Object o)
Removes the first instance of o in the list. Returns true if successful.
E set(int index, E element)
Replaces the element at specified index with new element. Returns the original element.
int size()
Returns how many elements are in the list
Object[] toArray()
Returns an array with the exact elements of the list.